Estonia Fast Facts

Estonia Fast Facts

Estonia is located on the Baltic Sea and borders Russia and Latvia. The Baltic country has beautiful national parks and is a very interesting and inexpensive travel destination, especially for nature lovers. Estonia sees itself as a digital society from which many Western European countries could learn a lesson. See Andyeducation for education in Estonia. Capital […]

Ischia, Italy

Ischia, Italy

The history of this amazing island begins with a myth. The goddess Venus, who was watching the battle of Jupiter with the Giants, saw how the angry god tore off a piece from the volcano Etna and threw it at the monster Typhon. Venus changed the flight path of the volcanic rock and directed it […]

Switzerland Music

Switzerland Music

At least until the mid-1940s, the Swiss musical world remained extraneous to the influence of the Second Vienna School, and the generation of composers born in the first twenty years of the century was affected above all by the French training at the school of N. Boulanger. This applies not only to the composers of […]

Greece Public Finance

Greece Public Finance

Among the Hellenistic states, Egypt holds the first place for the excellence of its financial organization, the fundamental features of which date back to the ancient era of the Pharaohs, but it was perfected by the first Ptolemies, who developed and technically improved the system tax, so as to affect all the resources of the […]

Greece Sculpture 12

Greece Sculpture Part 12

It is more difficult to establish the place that competes in Hellenistic sculpture in Alexandria. Certainly Alexandrian was the original of the statue of the Nile in the Vatican, where the mighty reclining figure of the river, with a somewhat melancholy face, stands out on those of the 16 children who climb or play around […]

Greece Sculpture 11

Greece Sculpture Part 11

Following comparisons, other works could be ascribed to the first phase of parchment sculpture: the group of Menelaus and Patroclus, known from various copies, including the famous torso of Pasquino, the “Arrotino” of Florence, that is an intent Scythian to grind the knife to skin Marsyas, the figure of Marsyas hanging in its two separate […]

Greece Sculpture 10

Greece Sculpture Part 10

According to, the current of Praxiteles is represented especially by his two sons, much inferior to him, Cefisodotus the younger and Timarchus. Their grand parent’s style becomes mannered; this can be seen in the residues of the plastic decoration of the Asclepieus of Kos, due precisely to them. Refined sweetness, with the consequent nuance, is […]

Greece Sculpture 09

Greece Sculpture Part 9

Around the great triad, other artists and not mediocre ones. Trasimedes di Paro, author of the chryselephantine simulacrum of Asclepius for the temple of the god in Epidaurus; memories of this simulacrum are in votive reliefs. Euphoric of the Isthmus, which flourished in the first half of the century. IV, painter and toreuta as well […]

Greece Sculpture 08

Greece Sculpture Part 8

A series of sculptural works can be mentioned, in which it seems that the imprint of Scopa’s art should be felt, if not direct, mediated: the Heracles already in the Lansdowne collection, in which, in the weighting and treatment of the nude, the polycleteus influence; the type of the so-called Meleager, especially known from the […]

Greece Sculpture 07

Greece Sculpture Part 7

Two Attic friezes can be adduced for the relief, that of the temple of Athena Níkē and that, the fragments of which are now distributed between Vienna and Berlin. The fidiac style is softening, almost foreshadowing or preparing the graces of the Praxitelean style; this is felt in the votive and funerary reliefs, in those […]

Greece Sculpture 06

Greece Sculpture Part 6

In the meantime, other artists’ tempers were flourishing in Athens. Licio and Cresila are worth mentioning. Licio, son of Mirone, remains faithful to his father’s address. Perhaps the original of the anointing athlete was by Licio, marble from the Glyptothek of Monaco, where in the anatomical treatment it is dryness of the planes, with cut […]

Greece Sculpture 05

Greece Sculpture Part 5

But the art of Phidias can be recognized in a complex of figured marbles; however, it should be noted that modern hypercritics have expressed doubts about their trustworthy character either in whole or in some parts. We mean the marbles of the Parthenon, or rather that part of the figurative decoration of the distinguished building […]

Greece Sculpture 02

Greece Sculpture Part 2

Next to the incunabules of the all-round sculpture are the incunabules of the relief, both of the not very protruding one, such as the procession of tiny knights on very high steeds and the series of beautiful figures of the temple A of Prinià, and of the very high one, such as the funerary steles […]

Greece Sculpture 01

Greece Sculpture Part 1

The first monuments of sculpture in the Aegean basin are offered by schematic, rudimentary idols of various materials (stone, terracotta, bone, lead, etc.) which are found in very ancient pre-Hellenic Eneolithic layers. The series of these idols include those, mostly female and naked, of the Cycladic civilization, carved in marble. Some of them reach quite […]

Greece Music 2

Greece Music

Even during the 1950s, the Greek music scene can be said to be dominated by the principles of the ” national school ”, which arose at the beginning of the 20th century (remember the manifesto-article by Greece Lambelèt, La Musica Nazionale, which appeared in 1901 in Panathìnea magazine) and with M. Kalomiris (1883-1962) as its […]

Germany Archaeology

Germany Archaeology

In Germany the archaeological activity of the last decade has been full of initiatives. The application of new technologies has also made it possible to achieve significant results. In the field of protohistory, new data relating to the panorama of Celtic culture have emerged following the excavations carried out in the village of Manching and […]

Vilnius, Lithuania

Vilnius, Lithuania

Vilnius: Best of Europe! Whether as a weekend trip or a city tour, whether as part of a study trip or as a stop on tours through the Baltic States: Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, is still an insider tip. The question is, how much longer… There are still no innumerable groups of tourists pushing […]

Italy Geography

Italy Geography

Italy – key data Area: 301,340 km² (of which land: 294,140 km², water: 7,200 km²) Population: 61.0 million (2011 estimate, CIA). Composition:Italian (includes small groups of German, French and Slovenian-Italians in the north and Albanian and Greek-Italians in the south) Population density: 202 residents per km² Population growth: 0.42% per year (2011, CIA) Capital: Rome […]

France Music 2

France Music

CULTURE: MUSIC. THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY In the first half of the eighteenth century J.-Ph. Rameau represented the synthesis of the great Baroque music of France. His lyrical tragedies (Hippolyte et Aricie, Les Indes galantes, Castor et Pollux) grafted on to Lulli’s models, renewing the splendors of the scenic representation and amplifying the commitment of the musical structure […]

Forestry in Norway 2

Forestry in Norway Part II

Real estate relationships and organizations Of the productive forest area, private individuals own about 77 percent, companies and co- owners 7.5 percent, the state barely seven percent, municipalities three percent and the public 5.5 percent. Norway has a larger proportion of private forests than any other country in Scandinavia. Much of the private forest is […]

Forestry in Norway 1

Forestry in Norway Part I

Forestry is the nurturing and harvesting of forests with a view to exploiting it economically. Nature and geography set the framework for Norwegian forestry. The country extends over several climate zones, from the Arctic zone to the far north to the temperate zone to the south, and the variations in climate and growth conditions are […]

John Richard Hicks

Great Britain Nobel Prize Winner

Nobel Prize Winner The Nobel Prize is considered to be the highest honor given to scientists, writers and peacemakers (individuals, politicians or organizations). The award goes back to the Swedish chemist, inventor and industrialist Alfred Nobel (1833–1896). Nobel had stipulated in his will that a foundation should be established with his fortune, the interest profits […]