General information about Armenia
The official name is the Republic of Armenia (Republica of Armenia). Located in the southern part of Transcaucasia (Europe). The area is 29.8 thousand km2, the population is 3.2 million people. (2002). The state language is Armenian. The capital is the city of Yerevan (1.2 million people, 2002). Public holiday – Anniversary of the independence referendum on September 21 (since 1991). The monetary unit is the dram.
Member of the UN (since 1982), OSCE, EBRD, IBRD, IDA, IMF (since 1993), MIGA (since 1995), etc.
Geography of Armenia
Armenia is located between 40° East longitude and 46° North latitude. It is not washed by the seas. Armenia borders on Georgia in the north, Azerbaijan in the east, Turkey in the west, and Iran in the south. The highest mountains: Aragats (4090 m), Kaputjukh (3904 m), Azhdahak (3574 m). The main rivers (km) are Akhuryan (186), Vorotan (179), Debed (178), Araks (158), Rozdan (146), Aghstev (133); lakes (km2) – Sevan (1240), Arpi (4.5), Sev (2). Armenia has a variety of soil types and their pronounced altitudinal zonality. At an altitude of 600-900 m there are solonchaks, solonetzes, marsh soils. In the foothills (up to 1300-1400 m) there are chestnut soils, common in the Middle Araks depression and Zangezur.
The vegetation of the foothills is thorny shrubs and cushion plants. Deciduous forests (oak, hornbeam, beech) are located in areas with a mild climate and, together with shrubs, occupy 13% of the territory of Armenia. The animal world is diverse. In the reed beds – wild boar, reed cat, jackal; in the forests – roe deer, Syrian bear.
Mineral resources are represented by valuable deposits of copper-molybdenum, copper pyrite, gold, iron and polymetallic ores, lead, zinc, bentonite, rock salt, tuff, etc.
According to Bridgat, the climate is influenced by the proximity of the Black and Caspian Seas. The climate in the plains and foothills is dry, continental with hot summers and moderately cold winters. The average temperature in January is -5.2°С, in July +15.3°С.
Population of Armenia
Population dynamics (thousand people): 1920 – 780; 1926 – 881; 1939 – 1289; 1959 – 1763; 1970 – 2493; 1997 – 3800. The number of births is 34 thousand people. (2000). Infant mortality 15.6 pers. per 1000 newborns (2002). Average life expectancy 59 years (2002). Permanent population by age groups (2000, thousand people): 0-14 years old – 921; 15-64 years – 2545; 65 years and older – 337. In 2000, out of a total population of 3802 thousand people: men – 1848, women – 1954; urban population – 2532, rural – 1270 thousand people. According to the 1959 census: Armenians – 88% of the population. According to 1997 data: Armenians – 93.3%, Russians – 15.5 thousand, Kurds – 36 thousand, Ukrainians – 8 thousand, Belarusians – 1 thousand, Georgians – 1.5 thousand, Greeks – 5 thousand., Assyrians – 6 thousand. Most of the Azerbaijanis left Armenia as a result of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict.
In Armenia, the composition of the flock is practically homogeneous. 80% of the country’s population are parishioners, monophysites. In 451 the Armenian Church received its official name – the Armenian Apostolic Church. Etchmiadzin (1441) became the center of the church, here is the Supreme Patriarch and the Catholicos of all Armenians. There are two monasteries in Etchmiadzin, a theological academy and a seminary, and a magazine is published that coordinates the activities of various dioceses of the Armenian Church.
A great contribution to the development of the Armenian Apostolic Church was made by the Catholicos of All Armenians Vazgen I. Since 1995, the church has been headed by Goregin I.