Guam (Guahan) is an island in the Pacific Ocean, with an area of 544 km², and an unincorporated territory of the United States. It is the southern part of the Mariana Islands. There are 162 thousand residents (2015). The capital is Hagatna (Agana).
The Portuguese navigator Fernão de Magalhães, in the service of Spain, landed on this island in 1521. It remained a Spanish possession from the 17th century until 1898, when it was ceded to the United States.
Clipperton Island is a French atoll of 6 km² (2km² of emersed land), about 12 km in circumference and maximum altitude of 29 meters, isolated in the Pacific Ocean, located 1,300 km southwest of Mexico.
It was named after the English pirate John Clipperton, who inhabited the Atoll in the 18th century. In 1855, it was annexed by France. In 1897, it was occupied by Mexico, but abandoned in 1917. It returned to the possession of France in 1935, after an international arbitration.
The island is currently uninhabited and has a ruined lighthouse from the 19th century. It was administered through French Polynesia, until 2007, when its administration passed to a commissioner at the Ministère des Outre-mers, residing in French Polynesia.
Norfolk Island is an external territory of Australia, about 1,400 km to the east, in the Pacific Ocean. It houses one of the most isolated Australian communities. The Territory is formed by three main islands: Norfolk (5 km x 8 km), Nepean and Philip. There are 1.8 thousand residents (2011). The capital is Kingston.
Captain James Cook landed in Norfolk in 1774, when it was uninhabited. The island functioned as a penal colony between 1788 and 1814. In 1856, settlers arrived from Pitcairn. It became an Australian territory in 1913.
The Cook Islands are a group of about 15 islands and atolls in the Pacific Ocean, self-government, in free association with New Zealand, a major country in Oceania defined by countryaah. They are spread over a large area. There are 11.7 thousand residents (2016). The capital is Avarua, on the island of Rarotonga.
These islands were inhabited by Polynesians when some were visited by Spanish navigators in the 16th century. The group of southern islands were visited by the English navigator James Cook in the 1770s. The British government politically united these islands in 1888 as a protectorate. In 1901, administrative control of the Islands was transferred to New Zealand. The Cook Islands gained autonomy in 1965, maintaining free association with New Zealand. The head of state remains the same British monarch.
Northern Mariana Islands
The Northern Mariana Islands are part of the Mariana Islands, in the Pacific Ocean, and an autonomous territory in association with the United States. There are about 22 islands and islets, part of an underwater chain of mountains of volcanic origin. There are 52 thousand residents (2017). The capital is Saipan.
The Mariana Islands were discovered by the western world, through the Portuguese navigator Fernão de Magalhães, at the service of Spain, in 1521. They were claimed by Spain, in 1667, and received the name of Queen Mariana of Austria. They remained a Spanish possession until 1898, when they were ceded to the United States. The current political relationship with the USA was negotiated in the 1970s.
Niue is an island of self-government, in free association with New Zealand, located in the Pacific Ocean. There are 1,600 residents (2017). The capital is Alofi. Due to its isolation, the population of this island has a very distinct culture. English captain James Cook landed here in 1774. The Island became a British protectorate in 1900 and was annexed to New Zealand the following year. Political autonomy was achieved in 1974.
New Caledonia (Territoire des Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dependances) is an overseas collectivity of France located in the Pacific Ocean, withspecial status. It is a group of islands in Melanesia, which includes the Grande Terre, Corse, the Loyauté islands (Ouvéa, Lifou, Tiga and Maré), the Belep islands and others. The highest point is Mount Panie (1,628 m). There are 269 thousand residents (2014). The capital is Nouméa.
In the first half of the 19th century, New Caledonia was occupied by France and Great Britain. It became a French domain in 1853. A referendum on the sovereignty of New Caledonia is scheduled for 2018.
The Pitcairn Islands (Pitkern Ailen) is a British overseas territory in Polynesia, consisting of four islands: Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno. Henderson is the largest island, but only Pitcairn is inhabited, with about 50 people. The total land area is 47 km². The capital is Adamstown.
The islands of Pitcairn, Henderson and Ducie were discovered, in 1606, by the expedition of the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, during the Iberian Union. The Islands were named after British Navy aspirant Robert Pitcairn, who reportedly sighted Pitcairn Island in 1767. In 1790, mutineers on the British ship HMS Bounty settled on the Island. It became a British colony in 1838. Pitcairn reached its peak population in 1937, with 233 residents, but many emigrated, mainly to New Zealand. In 1988, Henderson’s atoll, currently uninhabited, entered the list of natural heritage sites by UNESCO. Today, the Territory seeks immigrants and encourages tourism.
French Polynesia is an overseas territory of France located in the South Pacific Ocean, consisting of 35 islands and about 83 atolls. The islands are grouped into five archipelagos: Marquesas, Gambier, Tubuai (Austral Islands), Sociedade and Tuamotu. The capital is Papeete, located on the island of Tahiti, the Society Archipelago.
The United States’ Samoa territory is administered by the Department of the Interior. It is located halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand and includes Rose Island and Swains Island. The highest point is Lata Montanha, 964 m. The capital is Pago Pago.